In basic terms, your property is taken without consent of the owner to the government. This would occur in situations where a needed highway or railroad needs to be built. According to the legal dictionary, it is “the power to take private property for public use.” It is a relief to note that the owner receives compensation for such actions.
It is difficult to sort out the issue of eminent domain. According to the constitution, the government must prove 4 elements. First, it must be private property, second, it must be taken, third, it must be for public use, and fourth with just compensation.
At least the process of taking away property from the owner is just and in a dignified manner. The government has to negotiate these matters. If the owner does not accept the offer, then the government has to take the matter to court. They have to prove to the court that it is for a valid reason and will be used for public use. Once it gets sorted out at court, payment to the owner must meet the demands of the mortgage, liens, etc.
In my opinion, I would be sure to purchase property that is not near any highway or anything that could potentially be lead into eminent domain. There are no guarantees.